Hexachloromelamine (DT6) is a crystalline powder of white or slightly yellow color with the smell of chlorine.

Degassing by abrasion is based on the decomposition and washing away of toxic substances with aqueous solutions of detergents at high temperatures. Products made of cotton fabrics, as well as cotton clothes are degassed by washing. 0.3% and aqueous solution of SF2U powder (SF2) are used as a washing solution.

Ventilation degassing (natural degassing) can be used for all types of clothing, footwear and personal protective equipment, especially in cases of contamination with toxic substances. It is carried out in the presence of time and in the absence of other means of degassing. Degassing by ventilation is most rapid in summer at a temperature of 18-25 ° C.

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The BU4M booster set is intended for degassing and disinfection of cotton clothes, individual means of protection and tarpaulins, and also household items.

The main tactical and technical characteristics of BU4M: capacity of a boot vat of 450 l, volume of capacity for water of 2570 l (water tank on 570 l and the tank from fabric on 2000 l), loading capacity of the lifting device of 300 kg, productivity of the BKF4 pump of 60 l / min., time of deployment (folding) without installation dried 28-32 minutes, average productivity on degassing (disinfection) of cotton clothes for 10 hours. work in summer 320 sets., in winter – 240 sets., calculation – 4 people.

Clothes disinfection stations are created on the basis of mechanical laundries, self-service laundries, factories and dry cleaners’ workshops, disinfection departments of baths and sanitary passes. Intended for disinfection of clothing and personal protective equipment contaminated with radioactive, toxic substances and bacterial agents.

Substances used for the manufacture of solutions for degassing: hexachloromelamine, dichloramine, dichloroethane, caustic soda, ammonia water, monoethanolamine, DTS HA, chlorinated lime.

Hexachloromelamine (DT6) is a crystalline powder of white or slightly yellow color with the smell of chlorine. Insoluble in water, soluble in dichloroethane. Melting point 125-135 ° C. Stored in PVC bags placed in wooden boxes. The weight of the product in the box is 30-40 kg.

Dichloramines (DT2, DTX2) – white or slightly yellowish crystalline powders with the smell of chlorine. In the dry form they are stable, insoluble in water, well soluble in dichloroethane. In dry form it is stored in plywood stamped barrels weighing 25 kg.

Dichloroethane is a volatile, colorless or slightly yellowish liquid with the smell of alcohol or chloroform. Boiling point 84 ° C, freezing point -35 ° C. Insoluble in water, burns when ignited. When ingested, it causes severe poisoning or death, its vapors are harmful during prolonged breathing. Dichloroethane is used as a solvent for substances DT6, DT2, DTH2 for degassing; stored and transported in iron barrels with a capacity of 100 and 250 liters, as well as in rail tanks.

Caustic soda (caustic soda) – white pieces or small scales. Absorbs moisture in the air, stored in airtight containers. Dissolves well water. Concentrated solutions (more than 35%) corrode human skin and cause damage to fabrics and shoes. Stored and transported in iron drums with a capacity of 100 liters.

Ammonia water is 20-25% and a solution of ammonia in water. It irritates the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose, has virtually no effect on human skin. The freezing point of ammonia water depends on the presence of ammonia in it and is –10 ° C for the 8% solution, –17 ° C for the 12% solution, and –40 ° C for the 25% solution. Ammonia water is stored in iron barrels with a capacity of 100-250 liters and other tanks.

Large-scale chemical emergencies can cause varying degrees of severity to large numbers of people. As a result, there is a difficult situation for the provision of medical care both in terms of scope of work and the conditions of their implementation. This situation is often complicated by the fact that the victims have to be additionally protected from the accompanying accident (catastrophe) secondary factors of damage (fires, explosions, poisoning by new chemicals, etc.).

Victims in the area of ​​infection or in the area of ​​a chemical hazardous situation are provided with first aid and measures are taken to immediately evacuate the victims to hospitals.

To solve these voluminous tasks, there are often not enough forces and means at the site of the accident and even in a nearby area (city of regional subordination). In this regard, the plans for protection against SDOR should provide for the involvement of the formation of the medical service of the Central Administration of neighboring districts (cities of regional subordination), as well as units of the civil defense forces.

Thus, the organization of medical care in hazardous chemical emergencies should be based on a differential approach depending on the circumstances, provides a two-stage system of medical evacuation: first medical and first hospital care provided directly in the area of ​​the accident ( disaster) and the center of chemical contamination, and specialized care and inpatient treatment organized outside of chemical contamination.

At the first most important stage in organizational terms, the main task of the medical service in the event of a chemical hazard is the timely provision of medical care to victims, and in some cases, sanitary and hygienic measures to prevent infectious diseases. To perform these tasks, mobile medical units (formations) are needed, which are highly prepared and able to immediately begin providing assistance to victims in all circumstances. It is necessary to coordinate their actions, clearly define their scope of activity, establish the scope of work and lead the medical units (formations) from a single center.

The procedure for the use of medical units (formations) in accidents with SDOR is determined based on the provisions of hospital evacuation of victims.

First aid for victims of SDOR and injuries is provided directly at the site of injury (injury).

This is achieved in two ways: firstly, the victims themselves provide self-help and mutual assistance, and secondly, medical units (sanitary wives, sanitary posts and medical units of economic entities) are immediately involved in rescue operations. Victims are evacuated from the accident area and infected area. regardless of the severity of the lesion.The severely injured are accompanied by medical staff, for which support teams are formed.All wounded and sick are taken to medical institutions (clinics, hospitals, hospitals, etc.).

The main requirement for the organization of first aid is to provide it to the maximum number of victims in a short time and take them to hospitals. The lightly wounded can be evacuated in small groups on foot. Victims who are in serious condition are transported by transport.

Sanitary transport is used to transport victims and only in some cases the use of public vehicles is allowed. Improper transportation is a dangerous complication for victims. That is why cars intended for transportation of victims must have appropriate sanitary equipment.

Affected hydrocyanic acid as an antidote give amyl nitrite. To do this, break off the head in an ampoule with an antidote, lay the ampoule under a helmet (mask) worn on the affected gas mask. At the termination of breath to the victim do artificial respiration and then allow to breathe amyl nitrite.

In case of skin lesions with drip-liquid poisonous substances or when they get on clothes, degassing and partial sanitation are carried out immediately with the help of an individual anti-chemical package. Areas of skin that are contaminated with toxic substances, after treatment, lubricate with a solution of iodine tincture.

Artificial respiration by the method of Kalistov. Affected by toxic substances of suffocating action should be warmed and quickly taken to a medical facility. Artificial respiration cannot be performed so affected.

The first aid at defeat by poisonous substances of lacrimal action consists in careful washing of the struck eye with clear water; if the cut in the eyes does not stop, the victim should be referred to a medical facility. Rinsing the eyes, of course, is carried out outside the area of ​​infection, when you can remove the gas mask.

In case of poisoning by highly toxic substances (SDOR) it is necessary to act in accordance with the requirements of the Emergency Cards for these chemically dangerous substances.

Conclusion: Therefore, due to the presence in Ukraine of a significant threat from natural factors, the protection of the population, the environment, industrial facilities, facilities from natural disasters, along with protection from man-made emergencies, is an important state task. …

Currently, millions of tons of toxic substances are used in industry, agriculture and for domestic purposes in the world, including 500 substances belonging to the group of SDOR – the most toxic to humans. In addition, up to 10 billion tons of fuel (coal, oil, gas, shale) are burned annually in the world, as a result of which more than 100 million tons of oxides enter the atmosphere, soil, water a year, and then into the human body. nitrogen, and a total of up to 700 different substances.

As a result of such chemical impact on the environment, an exceptionally unfavorable ecological situation has been created, including in our country.

On the territory of Ukraine there are more than 1500 industrial enterprises that produce, store and use more than 280 thousand tons of various SDOR. These areas are home to 22 million people.

Literature:

Life safety: Textbook: / Ed. SV Belova – M .: Higher School, 2002 .– 476 pp. Deputy OP, Kovalenko IV, Muzhik IS Civil Defense / Edited by B. C. Franko. Textbook. 2nd ed., Ext. – Lviv: Poster, 2001. Prevention of emergencies / Edited by Lieutenant General VF Grechaninov. – K., 2003. Gubsky AI Civil defense. – K., 2000.

11/05/2011

Scenario for a virtual tour for 4th grade students on the stated topic in the form of a media presentation, the purpose of which can be defined by the following lines: Jezupil

My native Jezupil.

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